Urology is the medical and surgical specialty involving disorders of the genitourinary tract, and the adrenal glands. In particular, this specialty concerns itself with kidney, bladder and urinary problems, as well as men's sexual and reproductive health. Urologists also known as genitourinary surgeons, are those who specialize in urology that diagnose and treat patients with different urological conditions. The urinary and reproductive tracts are closely linked, and disorders of one often affect the other. Thus a major spectrum of the conditions managed in urology exists under the domain of genitourinary disorders. Urologists treat patients with kidney, ureter, bladder, prostate, urethra, and male genital structure disorders and injuries. Urologists may perform both surgical and non-surgical procedures. They perform surgery for cancers, treat incontinence and infertility, assist with gender reassignment and more. Urologists use endoscopic, percutaneous (where access to inner organs or tissue is by putting a needle through the skin), and open surgery to treat congenital and acquired disorders of the reproductive and urinary systems and related structures. Common ailments they deal with include erectile dysfunction, enlarged prostrate, prostatitis, Urologic cancers, kidney and Urethral stone, Painful bladder & prolapse, incontinence, urinary tract infections, pediatric disorders such as undescended testes etc. Although Urology is classified as a surgical specialty, a knowledge of internal medicine, pediatrics, gynecology, and other specialties is required by the urologist because of the wide variety of clinical problems encountered. They work closely with Nephrologists, Endocrinologists, and Oncologists whose specialties complement one other. Within the discipline, Urologists can have sub-specialization in pediatric Urology (related to urological problems in children), Andrology (related to the male reproductive system/ infertility), Endourology (which deals with minimally invasive or closed surgical procedures of the urinary tract), Neurourology (related to nervous system controlling Genitourinary organs), Reconstructive urology (related to disorders of genitourinary tract), Urologic oncology (urologic cancers), among others. Now Urology is one of the most sought after higher specialty. Educational requirements to become a Urologist A medical student need years of medical school training to become an Urologist. Only after earning an MBBS and MS degree, you can appear for the MCh entrance test. MBBS is of 5½ years duration which includes one-year internship period OR house surgency. After completing their 10+2 with biology, chemistry and physics, aspiring candidates must appear for the competitive entrance exam for MBBS. After completing MBBS, they should go for MD or MS degree in General Medicine/Surgery which is a 3 year course. MS admission is also based on Entrance tests. After this they have to further do MCh, an accredited University degree of 3 years duration. Admission to this doctorate level course is provided on the basis of merit in the qualifying exam (i.e MS) as well as on the basis of performance in the entrance test, conducted independently by state governments or varying from institution to institution. Training imparted to the candidate and the training centre itself undergo periodic appraisal by the Medical Council of India. Another way for formal Urological training in India is a DNB degree by the National board. Selection for DNB is via a common entrance test conducted by the National Board and selected candidates choose their specialty. DNB appears to carry more weight internationally. Personal Attributes Needed The key attributes required in Urology as with any other medical profession are the desire to help patients / service mentality, calmness, personal motivation and stamina needed for long work hours. They should also possess excellent decision making ability, knowledge of latest medical developments, logical and analytical mind, perfect eye and precision to do the job, good memory and recollection ability, emotional stability, ability to interact with patients and healthcare professionals, willingness to learn throughout their career and above all genuine care and concern for patients. Job Prospects in Urology Job prospects are expected to be very good due to increased need for Urology services, especially for urologists with specialty training and extensive experience. Many job openings arise from the need to replace urologists that retire, transfer, or leave the profession for other reasons. Most Urologists work in a hospital setting or in a private clinic. There are ample job opportunities for Urologists in the Urology department of reputed Hospitals. Urologist can also open their own Kidney and Uro stone Clinic and provide services to the patients. Many surgeons will advance their careers by joining a group practice with surgeons in related fields, or by opening a practice of their own. Some Urologists may also become teachers in medical schools and colleges. How much can a Urogolist Earn Overall, Urologist salaries are based on years of experience, location, specialty, and the type of facility. In private hospitals, you can start earning as much as Rs. 1 lakh per month. Urologist in government sector can expect to get nearly Rs.50,000 to Rs.60,000 depending upon his experience and expertise. Self-employed urologists working in their own practice often make more than a Urologist working for salary at a hospital.