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Surveying

Surveying is a profession suitable for analytical thinkers with an interest in spatial information and discovery of the world around us. Surveyors can pursue a wide variety of specializations in their fields, and have the opportunity to work in almost any part of the world. The technique or science of measuring the position, distance and the angles of earthly surface is known as surveying. Surveying is generally used to make land maps and boundaries. Surveyors are experts in measurement and measurement systems. A surveyor, sometimes referred to as a land surveyor, is responsible for accurately measuring (surveying) land in order to plot out exact locations and distance between points. To accomplish their objective, surveyors use elements of geometry, engineering, trigonometry, mathematics, physics and law. Surveyors measure and draw what the earth's surface looks like. Surveys are done in the air, sea and underground, too. They work outdoors and indoors, in mountainous terrain and cities, and even map land under water. Surveying with reference to professional practice, can be grouped into Land Surveying, Hydrographic Surveying, Cadastral Surveying, Mine Surveying, Building & Quantity Surveying, and Valuation Surveying. Professional surveyors measure and analyze angles and distances between property corner markers and to physical features on a piece of land. Under the ground, mining surveys are done to show what raw materials are available and where they are located. A surveyor must accurately indicate land elevations, property lines, land contour for development, division of land or many other purposes. They write descriptions of land for deeds, leases and other legal documents, define airspace for airports and take measurements of construction and mineral sites. A land surveyor is responsible for taking accurate measurements and recording the exact land layout in order to assist in the production of maps, graphs or other documents. Surveying has been an essential element in the development of the human environment since the beginning of recorded history (about 5,000 years ago). It is required in the planning and execution of nearly every form of construction. Wherever there are roads, railways, reservoir, mines, dams, retaining walls, bridges or residential areas to be built, surveyors are involved. Based on the surveyors' findings, architects, engineers, and drafters decide on the most economical use of the land. Engineering, especially civil engineering depends heavily on surveyors. With the passage of time, land surveying tools and techniques has advanced, and the role of land surveyors is much broader than it was in the past. Earlier only chains and compasses were used as measurement tools, but now for larger projects, surveyors are increasingly using more accurate tools such as Global Positioning System (GPS), a satellite system that precisely locates points on the earth by using radio signals transmitted via satellites. Surveyors have to work indoors in offices, as well as outdoors and that too enduring all types of weather. Traveling is sometimes part of the job, and land surveyors and technicians may commute long distances, stay away from home overnight, or temporarily relocate near a survey site. Surveyors work indoors while planning surveys, searching court records for deed information, analyzing data and preparing reports and maps. Eligibility Educational : A bachelor's degree in surveying, civil engineering, forestry or a similar field is required for most surveying positions. B.E./ B.tech holders in civil and any other Branch of Engineering, the curriculum of which includes land surveying;or M.Sc. with Mathematics or science, are eligible for the job of a surveyor. A Diploma in civil engineering is also considered for entry level jobs as a surveyor. A sound scientific or technological background is highly desirable. Surveyors must have a thorough knowledge of algebra, basic calculus, geometry and trigonometry. They must also know the laws that deal with surveys, property and contracts. The educational background should include a reasonable standard of physics, mathematics and statistical / analytical reasoning. Education in surveying deals with the concepts and methodologies of gathering, processing and representing geo-spatial data in a defined form and format. The courses encompass theories and practices in disciplines of geodesy, geo-physics, photogrammetry, land surveying, cartography, reprography etc using the modern tools of data gathering such as GPS, Digital Photogrammetry, laser ranging, remote sensing etc. Indian Institute of Surveying & Mapping conducts various short term as well as long term courses in surveying. One can be a Surveying engineer, supervisor and technician according to one's qualification. The eligibility for a Surveying Engineer course is Civil Engineering or M.Sc. Mathematics; for a supervisor it is B.Sc. with Mathematics and for a technician it is Intermediate (Plus Two) with Mathematics. A Surveying license is required for practice. It is mandatory for Valuation or Insurance surveyors to pass the examination of the Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority (IRDA) to obtain a surveyors license. The examination is held twice in a year. ( i.e. March/April & October/November). Those trainee surveyors who have completed their training are eligible to appear in these examinations. Personal Attributes : A surveyor must have the ability to accurately and precisely record his or her findings and keep records of such findings. Besides having statistical and analytical reasoning skill, they should be meticulous and have an ability to maintain concentration at all times, as carelessness or a lapse in concentration may have drastic consequences in terms of the overall quality, accuracy & efficiency of a survey. Surveyors need good eyesight as they have to visualize objects, distances, sizes, and abstract forms. They must be in a good physical condition because most of their work is outdoor under unfavorable weather conditions. Surveying is a cooperative operation, so good interpersonal skills and the ability to work as part of a team is important. They must have good communication skills, both verbal and written. The ability to read and write legal descriptions is also a valuable supplementary skill for the job. Accuracy, reliability and consistency in data generation is the cardinal principles in Surveying.

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