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Biochemistry is the study of the structure, composition and chemical reactions of substances in living organisms. It is an interdisciplinary program in which the principles of chemistry, biology, genetics, mathematics and physics is applied to the study or investigations of biomolecules, atoms, organelles, cells, tissues and organisms. Biochemistry is often defined as the 'chemistry of life' because it aims to explore and understand aspects of life. It is a branch of chemistry, which is concerned with the biological processes taking place in cells and organisms. Hence study of biochemistry deals with the chemical combinations and reactions which take place in biological processes such as growth, metabolism, reproduction, heredity etc, as well as the effect of environment on living organisms. The discipline can be used to study the properties of, as well as find uses for biological molecules. Biochemistry provide the basis for biotechnology and molecular biology techniques, ranging from biomolecular computation and modeling, to regulation of gene expression. Those who study the chemistry of living beings are called Biochemists. Biochemists study the elements, compounds and chemical reactions that are controlled by enzymes and take place in living organisms. Biochemists get into the most minute characteristics of living organisms. They delve deep into the structures and functions of biomolecules such as enzymes, proteins, carbohydrates, fats and other numerous processes related to metabolism of mankind. They are involved in production of biochemical products by experimenting, analyzing and researching. They undertake experiments and do research to study biochemical changes and also functioning of genes. They may be identifying the way in which DNA, which carries the genetic information, is transferred between cells and can be manipulated. Biochemistry contributes to advances in a wide variety of areas, including health, agriculture and environment. Biochemistry finds application in clinical and forensic science and in the food and pharmacological industries. Biochemistry is the key player in modern biomedical research, as biochemists contribute to the design of new drugs. Biochemists working in medicine are sometimes called Molecular biologists. They study bacteria, viruses and other organisms to understand the chemical basis of life. They also determine the effects of chemicals on medical problems such as cancer, aging or obesity. Eligibility Educational: There are several courses in biochemistry, minimum requirement to take a course in this field is 10+2 Science. Students having background in science at 10+2 level can take up B.Sc Biochemistry. Further one can opt for M.Sc and MD in Biochemistry whose eligibility are a B.Sc degree and an M.B.B.S degree respectively. Those with a masters degree in the respective field can go for Ph.D and M.Phil in Biochemistry. The course covers bioorganic chemistry, biophysical chemistry, human physiology, microbiology and virology, basic immunology, enzymology, intermediary metabolism of carbohydrates, structural biology, bioenergetics and biomembrances, computer applications in biology, nutritional and clinical biochemistry and molecular biology. Personal attributes: They must be creative, imaginative and hardworking with good communication skills both oral and written as they have to interact with other scientists. Biochemists must be cooperative and able to work as part of a team. Problem-solving, research and analytical skills, and curiosity are important traits for future biochemists. Organisational and computational skills are also essential. Because Biochemists work in a field that requires precision, they need to be careful and patient workers who can use scientific methods and equipment. They must be inquisitive as well as persistent. ________________________________________ Bioinformatics Bioinformatics or computational biology is the use of information technology in the field of molecular biology, or the application of computer technology to the management and analysis of biological data. Here computers are used to gather, store, analyze and merge biological data. It is an emerging interdisciplinary research area and is increasingly being used to improve the quality of life. The ultimate goal of bioinformatics is to uncover the wealth of biological information hidden in the mass of sequence, structure, literature and other biological data and obtain a clearer insight into the fundamental biology of organisms and to use this information to enhance the standard of life for mankind. It's importance is unlimited in the genomic era (genome is the complex molecular chains that constitute each organism’s unique genetic heritage). The hereditary information of an organism is encoded in the DNA. Genomics, the study of an organisms entire genome is developed to understand the basic molecule of life which is known as the code of life. DNA directly controls the biological makeup of humans or any living organism. Studying the structure of DNA has made amazing success over many genetically transferring diseases. It is variations and errors in the genomic DNA which ultimately define the likelihood of developing diseases or resistance to the same disorders. Bioinformatics could have profound impact in fields as varied as human health, agriculture, the environment, energy and biotechnology to advance biomedical research and development. It is being used now in the areas of molecular medicine to help produce better and more customized medicines to prevent or cure diseases, it has environmental benefits in identifying waste cleanup bacteria and in agriculture it can be used for producing high yield low maintenance crops. These are just a few of the many benefits bioinformatics can offer. The career prospects in the field has been steadily increasing with more and more use of information technology in the field of molecular biology. Job prospects are in all sectors of biotechnology, pharmaceutical and biomedical sciences, in research institutions, hospital and industry. Some of the specific career areas that fall within the scope of bioinformatics include Sequence assembly, Database design and maintenance, Sequence analysis, Proteomics (the study of protein, particularly their structures and functions), Pharmacogenomics, Pharma-cology, Clinical pharmacologist, Informatics developer, Computational chemist, Bio-analytics and Analytics etc. Eligibility A course in bioinformatics is suitable for those with a graduation or post-graduation in molecular biology, genetics, microbiology, chemistry, pharmacy, veterinary sciences, physics, mathematics, and also engineers, IT professionals, PhDs and medicos. Programs at different levels are available in the field such as B.Tech, Master Degree, Advanced Diploma and M.Tech. Study of Bioinformatics begins at the undergraduate level. The basic educational qualification to enter a program in Bioinformatics is 10+2 completed with science as the subject. The details of the educational qualification for different courses in this field are listed listed below. Courses & Educational Qualifications : B.Tech in Bioinformatics Candidate should complete 10+2 with physics, chemistry, biology and English Master's Degree in Bioinformatics Candidate should complete their graduation in any of the following subjects such as B.Sc / B.Sc (Agriculture)/ BCS / BE / B.Tech / MBBS /B Pharm / BAMS / BHMS / BVSc. Advanced Diploma in Bioinformatics Candidates having a post graduation in any of the following subjects such as M.Sc in Life Sciences, Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, Biotechnology, Biophysics, Botany, Zoology, Biochemistry, Microbiology, Pharmacology, Computer Science or Equivalent), M.Sc (Agriculture) or M.Tech or MBBS are eligible for the Advanced Diploma Course. M.Tech in Bioinformatics (Engineering) Pharmacy graduate, medical, dental and veterinary science graduates as well as postgraduates in science are eligible for the admission to M.Tech. Other than this eligibility for the courses in Bioinformatics in different colleges varies with the universities



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