Archery is the practice or skill of using a bow to shoot arrows. The word comes from the Latin arcus meaning ‘bow’ or ‘arch’. Historically, archery has been used for hunting and combat and was invented in the late Palaeolithic or early Mesolithic periods. In modern times, it is mainly a competitive sport and recreational activity. As a sport, archery requires skills of precision, control, focus, repetition and determination. It is available to be practised by all, no matter age, gender or ability, and is a widespread pastime in both developed and developing countries. Archery is an extremely accessible sport in countries around the world. It is a sport for all ages and abilities - and can be as recreational or competitive as the person taking part wants.
Equipment: The modern target bow varies in length according to the height of the archer but averages 173 cm (68 inches). Similarly, arrows vary, but an average arrow is 56 cm (22 inches). The drawing force of a bow—that is, the energy required to draw back an arrow to the fullest—varies from 14 to 23 kg (30 to 50 pounds) for men and from 9 to 18 kg (20 to 40 pounds) for women.
Modern competitive archery: Competitive archery involves shooting arrows at a target for accuracy from a set distance or distances. This is the most popular form of competitive archery worldwide and is called target archery. A form particularly popular in Europe and America is field archery, shot at targets generally set at various distances in a wooded setting. Competitive archery in India is governed by Archery Association of India. Para-Archery is an adaptation of archery for athletes with a disability governed by the World Archery Federation (WA), and is one of the sports in the Summer Paralympic Games.
Archery is an ancient sport that has evolved a number of variations in format. While target archery is the most popular and recognisable modern archery discipline thanks to its inclusion in the Olympic Games, World Archery also recognises a number of other archery disciplines.
- Target archery
- Para archery
- Field archery
- 3D archery
- Flight and clout archery
- Ski and run archery
World Archery is the international governing body for the sport of archery. Its mission is to promote and regulate archery worldwide, developing the sport with over 160 member associations through international events, development initiatives and marketing and endorsed by the International Olympic Committee, International Paralympic Committee and International World Games Association, among others. It is responsible for setting the rules and regulations for international archery events, organising the World Archery Championships and for the sport at the Olympic Games, Paralympic Games and World Games.
Archery Association of India came into existence in 1973, with the primary objective to organize, encourage, and promote the game of Archery in the country by providing proper training facilities to Indian Archers. To organize Mini, Sub-Junior, Junior, Senior level National Championships and National Ranking Tournaments regularly including competitions for selection for Indian Team for International Championships.
Archery first appeared in the Olympic Games in 1900, was contested again in 1904, 1908 and 1920, then again, after an absence of 52 years, from 1972 to the present. Modern Olympic archery has four events, with men and women competing in both individual and team events. The team event was introduced at the 1988 Seoul Games for the first time. At the Olympic Games, archers shoot at targets 70 metres away. The target is 1.22 metres in diameter and marked with 10 concentric rings. Individual archers compete in head-to-head matches in single elimination after being ranked from 1 to 64 during qualifications. In each contest both archers shoot 12 arrows and only the winner moves on. Teams are made up of three archers, and team events follow the same competition format as individual events.
World Archery Events: World Archery events range from the international to national, from multi-nationality to localised. All are run to the same (or similar) set of rules, and all feature archers performing, and competing, at their highest level. International events are awarded to bid cities, coordinated and managed by World Archery directly, world ranking events are coordinated by its continental associations and world record status by its national member associations.
International Events: The World Archery Championships, and its sister events for youth, para, field, indoor and 3D competitions, and the Archery World Cup and Indoor Archery World Cup are World Archery’s international event properties. They operate in accordance with the World Archery rules and are the international federation’s primary vehicle for promoting archery as an elite sport. World Archery is also responsible for coordinating the archery competitions at the Olympic Games, Youth Olympic Games, Paralympic Games and World Games. These events remain the properties of their respective owners.
World ranking Events: Athletes that compete at world ranking events earn points towards their World Archery ranking. There are minimum standard requirements for these events, including in results collection, verification and submission and the appointment of judges of an appropriate standard. World ranking events are awarded by World Archery’s continental associations in Africa, the Americas, Asia, Europe and Oceania.